Plant tissue culture (PTC) is a term most biotechnologists are well-acquainted with. This technology exploits what is known as the totipotency of Plant cells. Totipotency is the inherent capacity of each and every living plant cell, whether it originates from a leaf or stem or root of a plant to be able to give rise to an entire plant on its own. In short, I don’t need a seed to grow a plant. If I can  extract a set of totipotent cells from a plant and give it the right set of nutrients, the right temperature and day-night cycle and of course an optimal cocktail of hormones (Plant growth promoting), I can grow a complete plant out of those few cells. So I excise a small portion of the plant (leaf, stem, node, root etc) which is called the explant and then after carefully treating it with the proper set of disinfectants (to get rid of contaminating microbes) I inoculate it into media (liquid or solid) and provide it with all optimal growth parameters. Within a reasonable period of time I should be able to obtain plantlets out of my original explant. This is a very simplistic explanation of plant tissue culture.

From the time Gautheret worked with encouraging results in the young field of PTC in 1934 and the problem of tissue culture of plant cells was definitely solved in 1939, independently by Gautheret, Nobécourt and White, the field has come a long way. With more than ten thousand researchers actively engaged in this field of research1 the technique has undergone massive changes in method and application. From the more academic applications of trying to demonstrate totipotency and wound healing effects to generation of entirely new plants with the view to transplanting them in fields, we have witnessed the growth of an important tool of biotechnology.

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